The Circassian Mamelukes established their state in 784 AH / 1382 AD through Saif al-Din Barquq, and their roots go back to the era of Mansur Qalawun, who used them a lot in his army, and this division was loyal to him when he became a military general, and one of these Circassian Mamelukes, Barquq, became the most important and strongest statesman.
His ascension to the throne marks the beginning of the Circassian Mamluk dynasty, as they were called Burji, derived from the Mamluk “tower”, where they occupied the castle and its towers. Egypt witnessed an architectural and artistic progress during the time of the Mamelukes, although it was an unstable period. The Circassian Mamluks ruled Egypt for about 135 years With 23 sultans alternating, the defeat of Sultan Tuman Bay marked the beginning of the Ottoman era.
The military challenges facing the Maritime Mamluk state were much greater than the challenges faced by the Burj Mamluk state. The navy successfully fought the Crusaders and the Mongols at the same time, and among them emerged senior leaders such as Al-Zahir Baybars, Saif Al-Din Qutuz, Al-Mansour Qalawun, Al-Ashraf Khalil and Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun. The beginning of the rule of the Burjis witnessed threats from the Mongols led by Tamerlane, but the state was still strong and al-Zahir Barquq managed to face the situation and make Tamerlane fear confronting the Mamluk state.
After the Mamluk Empire expanded and became a fearful force from the East and the West, it began to deteriorate, so the period of the rule of Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qaytbay was characterized by weakness and turmoil, and the period of the rule of al-Zahir Qansuh al-Ashrafi, who succeeded him, increased the rebellions and conflicts between the princes until it reached the point that al-Zahir Qansuh al-Ashrafi plotted with the princes to kill his nephew. Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qaitbay “and ruled after him, then the princes conspired against him until they isolated him the other and installed the noble Atabek Jean Balat, then Al-Adil Toman Bay and Qansuh Al-Ghoury, and this was during the emergence of the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor, so they attacked the Levant, which was affiliated with Egypt and were able to conquer it because of their military capabilities on one side And the betrayals and plots that were taking place there on the other hand, the Ottomans invaded the Levant and as usual the Egyptian army went out to protect the Levant as it was protecting it from the Mongols and the Crusaders throughout the Middle Ages, but this time Qansuh al-Ghuri failed to prevent the Ottoman forces, and the Egyptian army drained out in the Battle of Marj Dabiq in defense On the authority of the Levant and died from shock at the time of the battle, and Toman Bey assumed power, the defeat of Sultan Tuman Bay marked the beginning of the Ottoman era.